Bad breath (or halitosis) is an unpleasant odour which can occur from time to time or be long lasting.
The main cause of bad breath is in the mouth. We have millions of bacteria that live in the mouth, particularly on the back of the tongue and these bacteria feed on the food debris that accumulates in the mouth and between our teeth. The bacteria give off a sulphur compound and it is this that creates the bad odour. Smoking and drinking alcohol contribute to the unpleasant odour. There are other conditions which affect the airways and stomach that can lead to bad breath too.
Improving your oral hygiene is the most effective way to eliminate bad breath. Brushing teeth and tongue twice a day using fluoride toothpastes, as well as flossing, will remove the bacteria which generally removes the odour.
Other things that help are –
The other causes of bad breath (which can be treated by your dentist) are
If your dentist finds that your mouth is healthy but you still have bad breath, you may be referred to your family medical practitioner as there are other causes of bad breath -
"Any surgical or invasive procedure carries risks. Before proceeding, you should seek a second opinion from an appropriately qualified health practitioner."